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African Savanna Elephant

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African Savanna Elephant

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT

Africa. It lives in a variety of habitats: mountain forests, miombo and mopane forests, savannah and desert areas, mountain slopes up to a height of 2 500 m above sea level.

BEHAVIOUR

Young individuals and females form a herd led by an experienced older one female. After reaching maturity, males leave the herd and live in separate ones groups. Elephants travel long distances, depending on access to food and water. They can travel at speeds of up to 40 km/h.

DIET

Leaves of trees and shrubs, branches, bark, fruit and roots extracted with the help of tusks. An adult elephant eats 150 – 280 kg of food daily. To replenish the deficiencies of microelements, it uses natural salt pans. Females gain body weight from 2,000 to 3,500 kg, males from 4,500 to 6,100 kg.

REPRODUCTION

Sexual maturity is reached at the age of 14-15 years. Gestation: 22 months. The female gives birth to 1 young weighing approx. 100 kg.
Life expectancy: 60-70 years.

GOOD TO KNOW

Reasons of the threat: poaching, illegal ivory trade, changes in the ways of using agricultural land, infrastructure development

  • Latin name: Loxodonta africana
  • IUCN –Red List – EN – Endangered
  • CITES – Appendix I/ Appendix II
  • EEP – European Endangered Species Programme